C.C. Zain  makes this rather incredible statement:

"The magical wheel  discovered in the thirteenth century by Raymond Lully, which was to solve all problems, was the Tarot."

C. C. Zain, The Sacred Tarot, p. 53:

Therefore, the system of Raymond  Luly  is one of  the prototypes of the Tarot.

"Ramon Llull and Nicholas of Cusa have been thought of as originators because their Neoplatonism parallels what can be seen in the Tarot symbols."

NEOPLATONISM and the The TAROT  by Dr. Robert O'Neill

" The thought of Nicholas is rich in comological metaphors (or models) founded upon the image of the circle and the wheel, in which the names of the divine attributes (explicitly borrowed from Lull) form a circle where each supports and confirms the others. The influence of Lull is even more explicitly revealed when Nicholas notes that the names by which the Greeks, Latins, Turks and Saracens designate the divinity are either all in fundamental accord, or derive from the Hebrew Tetragrammaton (see the sermon Dies sanctificatus)."

 Umberto Eco, "The Search for the Perfect Language" 1994.

Yates: Lull influence on Mantua three…


DOXE – indicates a Venetian influence in the spelling

Biblioteca Marciana – Bessarion, Greek influences in Venice, lead to Aldus.

50th card – other manifestations.

de Globus ludi –

Nicolas Cusa Societies


Pius II

Sienna pavement has WHEEL OF FORTUNE.


Willeford of circularity of Tarot

  Wind:   Cusanus in Italy.

Ask scholars for confirmation of Seznac/Brockhaus quote.

Write societies.

  Is it more of a conjecture, that the three illustrious individuals attributed with creating the Tarocchi of Mantegna, should all be Lullists? We can recognize the 50th card: as a circular Lulian device. Also it seems obvious that the ABCDE arrangemnt of the cards, would have significance in the Lullian system. This takes us once again to the TARO/ROTA dynamic which seems to have been staring us in the face. It is obvious to me, that a linear arrangement of the Tarot is faulty. We must see the 22 Arcana, as circular, rotating archetype.

  Now here, we can turn again to the Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism, as two examples, where we find rotating letters, placed on the petals of the chakras. I would suggest that similar arrangements would exist in the Kabbalah, with Hebrew letters replacing the Tibetan and Sanscrit. One such wheel, for we are dealing here with the archetype of the Wheel, Arcanum 10, is very familiar to us as the 12 Signs of the Zodiac. These Twelve Signs actually consist of Six Polarities, e.g.: 

ARCANUM 13 – 3



ARCANUM 14 – 4



ARCANUM 17 – 7



ARCANUM 18 – 8



ARCANUM 19 – 9



ARCANUM 2 - 12






  From this some extraordinary, and seemingly endless permutations of meaning can be read off. These explorations and their archetypal resonances with mythology, theugry, etc., form the bulk of my research, and it will take some time to make this available.

SEARCH: for URL: of  Jonathon Harris, Byzantines in renaissance Italy.


Gombosi article

See: Kenneth Clark


Various websites

Capella, Seznac etc, LIBERAL ARTS.

  In regard to Pius II, further research would have to begin in the Vatican archives, a daunting task indeed.

  Could you point me in the general direction of further archival discussions on Mantega, the artist. 


Bonner, A. (ed.) 1993. Doctor Illuminatus; a Ramon Llull reader. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Llull, Ramon D., Selected Works of Ramon Llull, ed. & trans. by Anthony Bonner, 2 vv., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Wade, E. I. 1998. a fragmentary German divination device: medieval analogues and pseudo-lullian tradition. in Fanger, C. (ed.) Conjuring spirits; texts and traditions of medieval ritual magic. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.